Types Of Counselling And Psychotherapy

Types Of Counselling And Psychotherapy
The commonest question I am asked by people making a primary enquiry about counselling is 'What type of counselling do you do?'

What's often meant by this is, 'What kinds of problem do you provide counselling for?' Most counsellors and psychotherapists, myself included, don't specialise in one type of problem, as all problems or difficulties affecting emotions and thinking have similarities, and largely respond to therapy in related ways.

So the answer to the question 'What sorts of problem do you supply counselling for?' would be something like 'Difficulties with emotions and thinking', reasonably than specific single issues like, say, 'low self-worth', or 'concern of failure'. Most counselling and psychotherapy deals with the entire person, and doesn't usually separate off one thing they're thinking or feeling or doing.

This is only a basic rule, however. There are some therapies which do specialise in particular types of subject, typically ones which employ a selected answer-primarily based approach. Counselling for addictions is an obvious instance, a specialism which often entails a progressive, guided programme. Others may be bereavement or eating problems. Specific part of the population, comparable to younger people or women, may additionally be recognized as groups needing a specialist approach to some extent, however on the whole these use the identical techniques as every other psychological counselling. The principle distinction may be that the company has been set up to take care of that particular difficulty or group, has acquired funding for it, and so focuses it's resources in that area. A person counsellor or psychothearpist might deal in a particlar space because it has especially interested them, or they've done further training in it, or possibly had specific expertise of the issue themselves.

What counsellors and psychotherapists mean after they communicate of various types of remedy is the distinction within the theoretical orientation of the therapist, not in the types of problem in which they specialise. There are a number or appraoches, broadly divisible into the three areas of Humanistic, Psychodynamic and Cognitve-Behavioural. Even a brief description of every type of approach and it's subdivisions is beyond the scope of this article. I will due to this fact limit it to the 2 main approaches which I make use of myself, Person Centred (a 'humanistic' approach) and Psychodynamic.

Person Centred Counselling and Psychotherapy

On the centre of the Individual Centred approach is the idea that the Counsellor is a 'guest' on this planet of the shopper's experience, with all that this implies regarding respect and trust.

The shopper is considered to be essentially trustworthy, that he or she is aware of someplace, by some means, what they want, and that they have a want for growth. The counsellor can assist carry these into awareness and assist the consumer to utilise them.

Another central idea is 'conditions of worth'. Circumstances are imposed early in life by which a person measures their own value, how acceptable or unacceptable they are. A simple instance is likely to be 'Don't ever be angry, or you can be an unsightly, shameful particular person, and you will not be loved.' The message this carries may be something like 'If I am angry it means I'm worthless, therefore I must not ever be angry.' The particular person will inevitably really feel indignant, probably steadily, and conclude from this that they need to due to this fact be priceless, ugly, shameful. One other may be 'Should you don't do well academically, it means you are stupid and you will be a failure in life'. This type of condition will have a tendency to stay with the person indefinitely, and he or she may need been struggling for years to live up to what may be unimaginable conditions of worth. If this sort of internal conviction is delivered to light, and it's roots understood absolutely, it is perhaps that the particular person can see that it isn't actually true, it has been put there by others, and my be able to move away from it.

The Person Centred Counsellor makes an attempt to be 'with' the shopper as a sort of companion. The Counsellor respecting and accepting the individual, whatever they are like, will lead to the individual him or herself coming to really feel that he or she truly is settle forable, and coming into contact with a more genuine, 'organismic' self which has always been there in a roundabout way, however been hidden. They could then develop into more genuine, less preoccupied with appearances and facades, or living up to the expectations of others.They could value their own emotions more, positive or negative. They might begin to enjoy their experience of the moment. They could value others more, and enjoy relating to them, rather than feeling oppressed, shy, inferior.

The Counsellor achieves this by making a local weather of acceptance within which the shopper can discover him or herself. Certain therapeutic situations facilitate this, circumstances laid down by the founder of this approach, Carl Rogers. These include:

The therapist's genuineness, or authenticity. This cannot be just acted, it needs to be real or it will likely be valueless.

Total acceptance of the consumer, and positive regard for them, no matter how they seem to be.

'Empathic understanding', the therapist really understanding what the client is saying, and, additional, showing the shopper that their emotions have been understood.

Psychodynamic Counselling and Psychotherapy

Psychodynamic, or Psychoanalytic, remedy makes an attempt to foster an interaction which consists of unconscious parts of the client. A whole lifetime's expertise, most powerfully what the individual has discovered from his or her first relationships in early childhood, will determine the way in which the client relates to others. This will come out in some form within the therapeutic relationship too, and the therapist needs to be aware of what forces and influences may be at work within the client.

This approach does not include that concept of 'free will'. It doesn't see our thinking, feeling and decision making as the result of aware awareness, however because the outcomes of many forces which are operating beneath conscious awareness. The individual is appearing and relating to others largely as the result of the instincts they're born with, along with what they have realized about themselves, largely by the nature of their shut relationships in early life.

The particular 'personality' is shaped within the crucible of this early experience. If, for instance, the principle carer of the child has not fed her properly, this shall be laid down in as an anxiety. This may be simply about being fed, about getting enough to eat, or it may be extended by the infant into associated things, corresponding to trust (they have discovered not to trust that meals, or the carer, will likely be there when needed), or insecurity about life usually, or a sense of there always being something lacking. A consequence may be overeating, say, or greed in different ways, for goods, or neediness, anxious want for the presence of others, or one other. This is one example. There are myriad sorts of operations of this sort within the psyche, forming from delivery, with every kind of subtleties and variations. They're virtually all laid down in a level of the individual which is not accessible to the aware mind, and are acted out unconsciously.

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